“How do the psychological, economic, and medical issues which arise from being a child in the care of the ministry affect how soon he/she leaves the education system?”
Ferguson, et. al. (2007). The Impact of Poverty on Educational Outcomes for Children. Pediatric Child Health, 12(8), pp 701-706, https://academic.oup.com/pch/article/12/8/701/2648025
This article covers the ways in which being lower on the socio-economic status scale impacts children’s cognitive and behavioural development. It explains the areas in which poverty affects family/home life and children, and how the latter can, in turn, affect different aspects of school readiness. It also includes suggestions on prevention and ways that programs can intervene at various stages to make positive change in these children/youth’s educational experience. The data used in the article were statistics from Statistics Canada, longitudinal surveys, articles by medical professionals (including psychiatry), and socioeconomic reports. This article is relevant to my research question, as often, children who are taken into care are on the lower end of the socio-economic scale.
Hwami, Munyaradzi (2018). Educating Children and Youth in Care in Alberta: A Scoping Review. Journal of Contemporary Issues in Education, 13 (1), ISSN 1718-4770, pp 3-22. Retrieved from http://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/JCIE.
This article is written by a professor in the education department at the University of Alberta using a scoping review. Hwami states that Alberta Education and Alberta Children Services have reported lower achievement in school by children and youth in care, especially those in group homes. Hwami argues that the education of the latter group is unimportant to the Alberta government and makes recommendations on how to improve the system so that all children have a fair chance of attaining education. Hwami’s concluding recommendations are for social workers, caregivers, and educators to better support education.
Mitic, W. & Rimer, M. (2002). The Educational Attainment of Children in Care in British Columbia. Child & Youth Care Forum, 31(6), pp 397-414, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1021158300281
This article contains findings of a study done by the provincial government of British Columbia (Ministry of Education and Ministry of Children and Family Development) in 1999/2000 school year to determine the educational outcomes for children in care. Data was gathered measuring performance in reading, writing, and numeracy in students from grades 4, 7, and 10 to see if there were differences between children in continuing custody compared to the general population. This study states that children in care consistently perform below average academically and are more likely to leave school earlier. This article is important for my research question because it sheds some light on where youth in care seem to fall short, compared to their peers who aren’t in care.
O’Higgins, A., Sebba. J., & Luke, N. (2015). What is the relationship between being in care and the educational outcomes of children? Retrieved from University of Oxford website:
This article synthesises the findings from the international literature on the link between being in care and educational outcomes. The three objectives of this review are to learn whether, or not, there is a link between being in foster care and educational outcomes, to determine the nature of this relationship in order to understand it better, and whether or not there is evidence to show that being in care is to blame for poor educational outcomes. The study concludes that there isn’t a solid argument for the latter, as it is typically a combination of pre-care experiences and potentially in-care experiences. The study also found that in Canada, males who enter care at 16 years old were less likely to graduate than their peers.
Peristeris, Konstantina. (2015). Identifying the Needs of Children in Foster Care to Inform Teaching Practices. (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from York University website:
Peristeris is a master’s student in Education at York University and her thesis is on the topic of teachers understanding the unique challenges of being a child in care so that they can help to advocate and hopefully make education more successful in these cases. The methodology used to collect data for this article was narrative inquiry. Limitations of this methodology was that the sample size of interviewees was relatively small, limited to one area (Vancouver, BC), and limited by age group (19 years old-late 20’s). The study found that there were four main challenges for children in care; Making friends and having a sense of belonging, stereotypes and stigma from being in care, exposure to various types of trauma which aren’t addressed, and lack of support from foster families.
Ramsay-Irving, Mary. (2015). The Foster Care Systems are Failing Foster Children: The Implications and Practical Solutions for Better Outcomes of Youth in Care. Canadian Journal of Family and Youth, 7(1), pp 55-86, https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/cjfy/index.php/cjfy/article/view/24298
The author of this article holds her Master’s degree in Counselling psychology. Viewing the issues surrounding children in care and the foster system through an attachment lens, Ramsay-Irving explains these issues and potential interventions in order to improve the outcomes for those in care. The article details the areas in which the foster care system is failing (including education, which makes it relevant to my research question), and how using attachment theory can help the audience understand these issues better. She pushes for further research in which interventions would be most effective, and also urges children/youth in care to be heard in the data, as they are the ones experiencing the system.
Rutman, D. & Hubberstey, C. (2016). Fostering Success: Improving Educational Outcomes for Youth in/from Care. Victoria, BC: University of Victoria. Retrieved from https://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/vancouverfoundation/pages/83/attachments/original/1464211909/Fostering-Success.pdf?1464211909
Rutman is an adjunct associate professor in the school of social work at UVIC. She has done research and written recommendations on how to improve educational outcomes for youth in/from care. Methodology included were a literature review, interviews, and an environmental scan. The main limitation is that the study was a small scale study. Barriers to high school completion as well as which factors seem to improve the odds are included.
Van IJzendoorn, M., et al. (2014). Children in Institutional Care: Delayed Development and Resilience. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2014 Aug 12.
Published in final edited form as: Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. 2011 Dec; 76(4): 8–30.doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5834.2011.00626.x. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=van%20IJzendoorn%20MH%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=25125707
This article states that children in care show delays in various domains, as well as maladaptation in areas of their lives. It is medical research into the different negative developmental effects of children raised in care (specifically institutionalized in group home settings) and why they exist. It also explores whether or not it is useful to use the label, “post institutional syndrome”. The findings concluded that there was not enough evidence to prove it useful, as it cannot be generalized. Each child whom enters into the care system is unique, as are the institutions they live in. The article mentions delays in physical, hormonal, cognitive, and emotional development; all of which could affect school readiness and academic performance.